Exploring Gender Inequalities in Work and Employment: Evidence Form Gender Statistics in Georgia

Thursday, 2 July 2015: 4:00 PM-5:30 PM
TW1.2.04 (Tower One)
Ia Natsvlishvili, Tbilisi State University Named After Ivane Javakhishvili, Tbilisi, Georgia
Results of many different research has shown that gender disparities impact women negatively and  depress economic growth. Female workers are underrepresented in labor force participation worldwide and they  tend to earn a lower income than their male workers. Researchers agree that female education and the performance of women-led enterprises has an impact on the economic development and on levels of gender equality, community development and family well-being. Improving the employability and entrepreneurship of women helps them attain  secure and productive livelihoods. This can  lead to higher levels of productivity for developing economies taking into considerations that  women enter the market economy in greater numbers.  Several  reasons can be found to explain why women are marginalized in gaining opportunities for employment and building successful entrepreneurial  organizations: social norms, patriarchal property laws, cultural and traditional expectations of  women role–often women are caretakers of the family and also work outside the home. These barrier compound with   regulatory barriers, lack of access to finance, poor networking and mentorship opportunities.  

In Georgian   Law “On Gender Equality”  special emphasis is given to ensuring the equal rights between women and men and improving women's participation in the political, economic and social processes. In social scientific theories and policy gender equality means equal opportunities, rights and responsibilities for women and men. It is a policy providing equal access to resources and economic  independence, equal sharing of  responsibilities for the family by man and women, participation in decision-making, public life and social activities.  Several solid publications were dedicated to explore quantitative  aspects of gender equality problems in Georgia. National Statistics Office of Georgia produces special statistical publication  “Woman and Man in Georgia”. The statistical data reflects the key trends of gender equality established in the country in 2010-2012.

As statistical evidence suggested   gender inequalities in employment, education and income distributions still prevails in Georgia. According the statistical data the status of men as heads of households remains unchanged.  The number of man-headed households is approximately twice as high as womanheaded households. In 2012 the share of the employed constituted 47.4 percent among women and 52.6 percent among men.  In the total number of unemployed population the highest share falls on the population of 25-34 years. The highest activity rate among women was observed in the age group of 45-54 (80.0 percent). The highest rate of employment falls on the same age group (70.8 percent), and the lowest rate – on the age group of 15-24 (18.3 percent). Unemployment rate is  the highest  among the women of 15-24 (36.2 percent). Employed population are persons with secondary education. 38.7 percent of employed women and 40.9 percent of employed men have secondary education. The population with higher education is a large share among unemployed - 47.0 percent of unemployed women and 33.9 percent of unemployed men had higher education.