Global Value Chains and Knowledge in Creative Industries: The Case of Quebec and Sweden's Video Game Clusters
Bibiana Pulido Ph.D. Candidate - University of Montréal- School of Industrial Relations
Interuniversity Research Centre on Globalization and Work (CRIMT)
- Keywords: global value chain, knowledge management, creative industry
The video game industry is a young and creative industry that has been expanding significantly over the last decade (Aoyama and Izuchi, 2003; Darchen and Tremblay, 2014). This industry is characterised by being innovative, creative and linked with new technologies, which have a certain impact on the functioning and the dynamics of its global value chain. Per se, over the past few years the video game industry has evolved and integrated new actors in its global value chain and given a less important role to the traditional actors of this industry. The literature on global value chains has been mainly concentrated on industrial sectors of the economy. Thus, global value chains in creative industries, such as the video game industry, have barely being analysed. Therefore, the specificities and the ways of functioning of creative global value chains deserve to be analysed.
The notion of production and diffusion of knowledge is crucial for the video game industry. Little is known on how knowledge is created and transferred throughout the global value chain of creative industries and more specifically of the video game industry. In deed the configuration of the global value chain has an impact on how knowledge is created and associated with innovation. Thus, the interrelationships between different actors, such as studios and institutions, have externalities of knowledge at local and global scales (Lorenzen, Scott et Vang, 2008). Hence, it is important to consider the types of relationships in this global value chain that lead to collaborative relations or on the contrary that demonstrate asymmetries of power between the actors (Knorringa et Pegler, 2006). In fact, these relationships are linked to the capabilities of the actors, formal and informal institutional arrangements and the diffusion of power throughout the global value chain (Rutherford et Holmes, 2008).
In this communication, we aim to construct an understanding on how knowledge is created and transferred through the global value chain of the video game industry. For this purpose we will present some preliminary results of a qualitative study that has been conducted on Quebec and Sweden’s video game clusters. Both of these clusters have been expanding and having a success in the video game market. In sum, the outcome of this communication will expose how knowledge is managed through a perspective of global value chain in two of the fastest growing “creative clusters” worldwide.