Principles, Mechanisms and Causes of Healthcare Marketisation
I conceptualise healthcare marketisation using three principles: openness to private providers, competition among public, private, and nonprofit sectors, and management autonomy. From these principles I derive a total of 13 marketisation mechanisms which I illustrate using case studies from England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece and Slovenia. These mechanisms constitute possible empirical manifestations of the principles outlined above. I then propose a framework for analysing the causes of healthcare marketisation. These include economic crises, neoliberal ideology, and international institutions as drivers of healthcare marketisation policy. The implementation of marketisation policies depends on the degree of centralisation in political and health systems and on the resources of resistance by civil servants, commissioners or healthcare professions.